Particle number (concentration) or CPC (condensation particle concentration): The aerosol particle number concentration includes all atmospheric particles excluding water and ice. The presented number concentration refers to a size range of 10 nm up to 10 micrometer in diameter. Sources range from traffic, fires, mineral dust, pollen and soil to production by a huge range of gases. Common unit is particles per cubic centimeter (ccm-1 or cm-3).
PM10 is the mass of particles assumed as spheres with a diameter of less than 10 micrometer. This covers nearly all of the particles that can be inhaled. It is commonly provided in microgram per cubic metre.
Particles of different sizes may enter the human body by different efficiencies. The largest ones stick early to surfaces such as the throat, smaller enter the lung where they deposit and the smallest even penetrate the alveoli and travel further on via the blood circulation.
PM2.5 is the mass of particles assumed as spheres with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometre. Those address particles penetrating deeper into the breathing system. It is commonly provided in microgram per cubic metre.
PM1 is the mass of fine particles, i.e. the ones assumed as spheres with a diameter of less than 1 micrometre. These ones penetrate even deeper into the lung system. Its unit is microgram per cubic metre as well.
The inhalable part of particulate matter mass takes into account the entering efficiency of different sizes. It is nearly identical with the PM10 mass observed.
The thoracic part of particulate matter mass is the fraction that can enter the lung system.
The alveolic part of the measured particulate matter mass concentration is the fraction that is able to enter the lung alveoli and the blood system. Any cancerogenic species associated with this one will have their largest impact on human health.
ELPI: stands dor Electrical Low Pressure Impactor and detects aerosol particles as ions in 12 size classes. Those are displayed as particle size distribution between 7nm and 10 micrometer. Small particles originate from gaseous presursors (sulfates, nitrates and organic compounds), while large particles enter by direct emission either from the surface or from the vehicle (soot and tyre abrasion).
Carbon monoxide (CO): Carbon monoxide is a trace gas originating from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (e.g. traffic) and from oxidation reactions of organic compounds before finally forming carbon dioxide (CO2). Unit is parts per billion by volume (ppbv).
Carbon dioxide (CO2): Carbon dioxide represents the final stage of any organic compounds gas-phase reactions. It's formed by combustion of different fuels and production of materials such as cement. Plants emit CO2 during night time (no photosynthesis) and consume CO2 at daytime. A further sink of CO2 is water that dissolves CO2 depending on temperature (the more the less) and alkalinity (the more the more). Unit is parts per millon by volume (ppmv).
Methane (CH4): Methane is a light organic trace gas originating from different sources, i.e. by bacteria (wetlands, oceans), termites, animals, humans, deposit areas, rice paddies and biomass burning. It is more climate effective as it absorbs at a different sun wavelength heating up the surface air by one mole more than one mole of CO2. Destruction takes place primarily by gas-phase reactions yielding finally CO2. During its presence in the atmosphere it contributes to ozone production. Unit is parts per billion by volume (ppbv).
Nitrogen monoxide (NO): NO is a toxic gas when inhaled in high quantities and takes part in atmospheric ozone production. Similar to carbon monoxide, its primary sources are incomplete combustion of fossil fuels at lower engine temperatures. It may control ozone concentration not only by production but also by reacting with yielding nitrogen dioxide. Unit is parts per billion by volume (ppbv).
Nitric dioxide (NO2): NO2 is a longer lived nitrogen oxide and an oxidation partner of nitrogen monoxide. Ambient gas-phase reactions convert these two compounds into the other reaching a steady-state. Nitrogen dioxide is the precursor of ozone formation. Once it is being photolyzed by sunlight, ozone is formed. NO2 is the compound detected, while NO is converted to NO2 in a second step and NO2 measured again. The difference in both measurements yields the amount of NO. Unit displayed parts per billion by volume (ppbv).
Nitrogen oxides (NOx): Ambient nitrogen oxides are grouped into several subgroups depending on their transfer rates into other nitrogen oxides. NO and NO2 are rapidly converted into the other compound (NO -> NO2 and vice versa) reaching a steady-state. Because of this they are summarized for measurements. Unit displayed parts per billion by volume (ppbv).
Ozone (O3): Ozone is known as a toxic gas for humans, animals and for plants. It causes lung damages and a decreased uptake of oxygen by the lung. It is part of the summer smog and is formed by nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sufficient sunlight. Unit provided parts per billion by volume (ppbv).
Sulphur dioxide (SO2): Luftgetragenes Schwefeldioxid (SO2) gilt als giftige und krebserregende Substanz. Sie trägt zu Feinstaubbildung und Versauerung von Niederschlag ("saurer Regen") und Oberflächen bei. Es stammt zumeist aus schwefelhaltigen Brennstoffen und wird bei Energieerzeugung, Heizung, Verkehr, Haushaltsprozessen und industriellen Arbeiten freigesetzt (Umweltbundesamt, Nationale Trendtabelle für die deutsche Berichterstattung atmosphärischer Emissionen seit 1990, Emissionsentwicklung 1990 bis 2014, Stand 03/2016, Dessau, 2016).
Air temperature in °C.
CORINE Land Cover Raster Data 2006, 100x100m
|Complex cultivation patterns|
|Continuous urban fabric|
|Discontinuous urban fabric|
|Fruit trees and berry plantations|
|Green urban areas|
|Industrial or commercial units|
|Land principally occupied by agriculture, with significant areas of natural vegetation|
|Mineral extraction sites|
|Moors and heathland|
|Non-irrigated arable land|
|Road and rail networks and associated land|
|Sport and leisure facilities|
The project BÄRLIN2014 addresses the impact of natural and man-made emissions from air pollutants, such as hydrocarbons and particles on the air quality in the Berlin Brandenburg Metropolitan Area.
The general question was: To which extent does the vegetation in Berlin and the surrounding area affect the degree of pollution under different conditions? And how does this change across the entire Berlin area, ranging from highly polluted streets and residential areas to parks and forests.
Berlin has a significant amount of green space that was expected to have a notable influence, often reducing pollutant concentrations. Furthermore, sources of particles were also investigated by measuring particle number. Particle number, especially when measured with size distribution information can be relevant for understanding the impact on human health, as smaller particles do not contribute significantly to particle mass but are some of the most important in terms of adverse health effects. Bicycle measurements were made to investigate particle number to which pedestrians, drivers and cyclists are exposed during different parts of daily life.
This map allows you to view the data that was collected during the bicycle measurements of the BÄRLIN-2014 campaign. Two options are available to view the data for a certain parameter (e.g., number of particles, PM10), either all measurement data or only those data that were collected on a certain day. Note that these data are not representative of the location where they were taken, but rather reflect the conditions at that certain point in time that are influenced by e.g., meteorology, traffic, etc. Analysis of the data is underway to characterise patterns and possible representative value ranges for limited areas.
To view all of the data from the campaign, simply select one of the overlays under 'settings' on the left hand side. To view only a specific day, select one of the available options from the calendar under 'set a date filter'. To return to the view with all the data, select 'show all tracks' in the calendar. The official campaign was conducted during June, July, and August of 2014. Not all days will have bicycle measurements available.
Zooming in or out is possible with the navigation tools on the left side of the map. In addition, to get more specific information about any one point, roll the cursor over the bicycle measurement track and click on a point. A pop-up box will display the date and time the measurement was taken, the latitude and longitude of the measurement, along with the data for the various parameters. Since two different instruments were used, two different sets of parameters will be listed in the pop-up box depending on which overlay is selected (either 'number of particles' or any of the other categories).
Set a date filter: